So You Want to Be a YTF Master Trainer

 

Post by Casmir Anya

What Makes a Worthy Master Trainer Candidate?

In a nutshell, master trainers train the trainers. I am privileged to serve as a master trainer for the Youth for Technology Foundation (YTF), and have a lot to share about my experience, including tips for fellow master trainers and some notes on personal growth and challenges.

A worthy master trainer candidate is someone who is skillful, knowledgeable and competent in delivering content to audience. One of the most important qualities of a master trainer is an incredible drive to educate others. I also look for someone who is an excellent communicator—meaning they can hold an audience’s attention for a number of hours. They also understand nuances within­­ the audience, such as level of education and cultural differences, including language, in order to communicate effectively.

In addition to being a great speaker and having an unyielding desire to serve others by providing a quality education, master trainers must also must truly believe in what they teach. They should be completely and authentically invested in the programs they offer and believe confidently that there is no one else better to teach these specific techniques to others.

Casmir talking to women entrepreneurs at Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs & Mobile Value Added Services program training session.

Casmir talking to women entrepreneurs at Nigerian Women
Entrepreneurs & Mobile Value Added Services program training session.

Master Trainers for YTF: Tips from My Experience

AUDIENCE. Understanding an organization’s target training audience and your ability to work with them is key. I’ve discovered I fit right in with YTF’s core audiences. I feel excited around young people, and I love teaching women because I’ve found they are good listeners.

EMPATHY. I also know learning is not always easy, especially learning a new course. I make empathy my mantra whenever I’m teaching. I put myself in the shoes of my audience.

MATCHING PACE. Some teachers make false assumptions about their students or even exhibit impatience. I choose instead to show great willingness to compliment slow progress and refrain from anger when mistakes are made. This includes repeating instructions, breaking down a task into small units and allowing time for learners to try things out. It is far better to move slowly and attain complete mastery, than to push for rapid and sloppy completion.  

POSITIVITY. While training people in customer relations, my best advice is to always smile, especially when they see customers. Even if they don’t feel like smiling, I encourage them to keep smiling. I chose to apply the same formula in the classroom setting as a trainer. I have resolved to keep a “humor is the word” philosophy since becoming a master trainer in YTF. A sense of humor while teaching makes the listener feel comfortable in raising questions, reinterpreting instructions and generally to feel relaxed while they learn. 

Personal Growth

Another important aspect of becoming a master trainer is to understand both the career advantages and challenges that come with such a coveted role. Being a master trainer in YTF has helped me establish new connections and ultimately create new work opportunities. This great opportunity with YTF has changed my mindset toward the challenges of life. For instance, I now work to provide solutions for issues in my community instead of sitting back and waiting for government.

I’ve learned teaching is really learning, an aspect I’ve come to value and look forward to as part of my instruction. For instance, in the course of training youths on the Project 3E platform, I was exposed to the world of entrepreneurship and become more conscious of my immediate environment. While brainstorming with my students, we were able to critically examine the problems and challenges of our immediate environment, which helped the participants develop solutions.

I’ve been thrilled to learn that master trainers are not only great educators, but also serve as mentors and guides. A master trainer’s job doesn’t stop at the end of training, as he or she will continue to communicate with trainees as they move forward along their own personal paths.

Most importantly, serving as a master trainer can also help individuals identify another way in which to grow and thrive in a field they are truly passionate about, doing the kind of work that they absolutely love.

Being a master trainer has not only helped me stay connected on a professional level – it’s also allowed me to truly live my purpose. 

I will remain grateful to YTF for activating the inert potentials of teaching in me. In fact, my friends and my audience also call me “a born teacher.” Wow! I’m fulfilled being a master trainer in YTF.

My Challenges as a Master Trainer

While doing what you love offers a wealth of benefits both personally and professionally, it’s not without its challenges. Scheduling and lack of time are two of the most common challenges I face as a master trainer. Combining my job in YTF and working on degree is certainly an uphill climb. Constant travel is very of a personal life, and sometimes I end up sacrificing many academic schedules to get the best for YTF. It is really rewarding and at the same time can be painful.

Interacting with a wide variety of personalities, including those with strong opinions, can also prove challenging. The key to keeping training on track is to not involve your own emotions, and to instead create a space for people to learn and grow while encouraging them to maintain an open mind for the duration of the course.

I recommend only pursuing becoming a master trainer if giving back, helping others and working to ensure the industry is moving forward in the right direction are your passions. This certainly isn’t about making money, considering the amount of time spent preparing for, traveling to and teaching each course. At the end of the day, we do this work for the love of teaching and to know that we are leaving the society better than we met it.

 ***

Casmir Anyaegbu is a Master Trainer with YTF in Nigeria.  Prior to joining YTF a little over a year ago, Casmir was an entrepreneur. Casmir also is a graduate of YTF Academy and completed his Masters in Agricultural Economics at Imo State University. He is passionate about teaching and inspiring others.

******

Meet our women entrepreneurs – Aniema, frozen food business owner

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Photo credit: Mile91

“If a woman runs a business successfully, it helps her and the family. If a woman gets this training and then puts it into practice, the money she earns with her business will help her to solve so many family problems which helps the nation at large.”

Aniema Eden owns Rasa Ventures, which sells frozen meat and fish, ice blocks and purified water. It occupies a shop on a busy street in Uyo in Nigeria, so enjoys regular customers. The business also specialises in providing products for large scale events, such as weddings, funerals and parties.

The Business Women text messages provided valuable ongoing support as Aniema developed her business. According to Aniema, many have given her new ideas.

The Business Women text messages provided valuable ongoing support as Aniema developed her business. According to Aniema, many have given her new ideas. She recalls one that prompted her to talk to her customers about what is unique about the products she offers: “Sometimes customers come and they will say ‘that person is selling for 5000, why is yours 6000?’ I say ‘do you know where they got it from? Have you checked the expiry date?’ I know where I get my products from. I know how much my suppliers get and I know how fresh my products are.” On another occasion a text message encouraged her to show appreciation to her staff so she bought food in as a thank you to the team who came in early so a customer could collect their ice. That was an encouragement to them. I believe if I put the effort in to appreciate them they will perform better.” Aniema wants to use what she has learned to help other women and has established the Women Leaders Forum, a group of successful women from both business and the public sector who provide support to women in the rural areas surrounding Uyo.

Case study interview conducted by Mile91. Ijeoma is one of the women entrepreneurs trained by Youth for Technology Foundation as part of the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services program supported by the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women. 

Meet our women entrepreneurs – Ijeoma, poultry farmer in Nigeria

Cherie Blair Foundation for Women, Nigeria 2014Photo credit: Mile91 

“If you just sit back and think ‘I know it all, why am I reading all these text messages?’ you will just be on the same level every week, every month, every year. But when you read the text messages and put them into practice, you sky rocket!”

Ijeoma Ewurum, a mother of nine, lives on a compound on the outskirts of Aba in Abia State. Keeping poultry had always been a hobby for Ijeoma, and she was able to focus her energy into making it a business after she retired in 2013 from a long career as a teacher.

In under a year Ijeoma has become one of the most trusted egg suppliers in the area, particularly popular with bakers. Her good reputation is thanks to the high quality of her eggs and she attributes this to the Business Women service. It was the Business Women text messages she received that focused on innovation that encouraged her to take measures to improve her eggs.

In under a year Ijeoma has become one of the most trusted egg suppliers in the area, particularly popular with bakers. 

After researching what she could do Ijeoma invested in a special vitamin supplement and the colour and size of her eggs are now consistent. As a result, customers are happy and are spending more: “One lady usually takes three crates of eggs but she called me up and said ‘next time I want ten.’”

Ijeoma also describes how the text messages have helped her to understand concepts such as capital investment: “Formerly, if I hear that word I just pass by it but these text messages have educated me more. Capital is the money you invest in your business. It’s not the type of money you say ‘ok I invested 100 Naira but I am in need of 2 Naira, let me just borrow this.’ No! You don’t touch it – that is your capital.”

The impact of these lessons have come together: Ijeoma is now saving the extra money she is making from her improved eggs to invest in growing her business. Her plan is to scale up production so that she can start selling to hotels and restaurants.

Case study interview conducted by Mile91. Ijeoma is one of the women entrepreneurs trained by Youth for Technology Foundation as part of the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services program supported by the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women. 

 

Meet our women entrepreneurs – Aniema, frozen food business owner

??????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Photo credit: Mile91

“If a woman runs a business successfully, it helps her and the family. If a woman gets this training and then puts it into practice, the money she earns with her business will help her to solve so many family problems which helps the nation at large.”

Aniema Eden owns Rasa Ventures, which sells frozen meat and fish, ice blocks and purified water. It occupies a shop on a busy street in Uyo in Nigeria, so enjoys regular customers. The business also specialises in providing products for large scale events, such as weddings, funerals and parties.

The Business Women text messages provided valuable ongoing support as Aniema developed her business. According to Aniema, many have given her new ideas.

The Business Women text messages provided valuable ongoing support as Aniema developed her business. According to Aniema, many have given her new ideas. She recalls one that prompted her to talk to her customers about what is unique about the products she offers: “Sometimes customers come and they will say ‘that person is selling for 5000, why is yours 6000?’ I say ‘do you know where they got it from? Have you checked the expiry date?’ I know where I get my products from. I know how much my suppliers get and I know how fresh my products are.” On another occasion a text message encouraged her to show appreciation to her staff so she bought food in as a thank you to the team who came in early so a customer could collect their ice. That was an encouragement to them. I believe if I put the effort in to appreciate them they will perform better.” Aniema wants to use what she has learned to help other women and has established the Women Leaders Forum, a group of successful women from both business and the public sector who provide support to women in the rural areas surrounding Uyo.

Case study interview conducted by Mile91. Ijeoma is one of the women entrepreneurs trained by Youth for Technology Foundation as part of the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services program supported by the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women. 

Meet our women entrepreneurs – Doren, Owner of a water purification business in Nigeria

Cherie Blair Foundation for Women, Nigeria 2014Photo credit: Mile91

 “It is not just enough to start the business without knowing what to do. The service helps women so much by giving them strategies to handle business.”

Doren is the owner of a flourishing business in the city of Uyo in Akwa Ibom state in Nigeria, supplying purified water sachets to the local universities, shops and market traders. Doren is also a mentor to other women entrepreneurs, who have learned from the challenges she has overcome along the way, including establishing herself in what is a male-dominated sector in Nigeria.

Despite being a role model and inspiration for other women, Doren is clear on how her business has been enhanced through her use of Business Women. The text messages introduced Doren to the idea of sending her customers Easter and Christmas cards and using this opportunity to undertake customer satisfaction surveys. This exercise revealed what her customers love about the business – including the eye-catching attractive packaging – but also where they would like to see improvements, such as an improved delivery service. Doren learned from this feedback and is now planning to recruit an additional driver to divide the deliveries between rural and suburban customers.

“I didn’t do these survey letters before. It was from the text messages that I got to know of this and now I’m happy to be writing letters to all of my customers.” 

“I didn’t do these survey letters before. It was from the text messages that I got to know of this and now I’m happy to be writing letters to all of my customers.” 

Although Doren had a passion for science and a vision for her business from a young age, she recognises that ambition alone does not guarantee success. As she explains, “If you don’t know how to interpret your dreams, your goals, then you don’t have anything. You could have a dream but you also need the capacity to interpret it, to become visible.”

Case study interview conducted by Mile91.  Doren is one of the women entrepreneurs trained by Youth for Technology Foundation as part of the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services program supported by the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women. 

My Disability Didn’t Stop Me. I am a Woman, a Mother and an Entrepreneur.

Akwa Ibom, Nigeria – September 24, 2013.  Today is a big day for the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services program.

YTF is providing entrepreneurship and capacity building training to over 400 women entrepreneurs in Akwa Ibom State.  These women are drawn from across all the local government areas and own business in the light manufacturing, social services, retail and wholesale industry.

Our ShEntrepreneur in Akwa Ibom is Mrs. Victoria Etim.  Her business, Victoria’s Court, designs and manufactures wigs, gown, gloves and other accessories for lawyers in Nigeria.

With support from the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women, YTF recruits women entrepreneurs and immerses them in several types of training including classroom and online training, industry tours and opportunities to network with each other.  The ShEntrepreneur is identified as a successful woman entrepreneur in the state where the training is taking place.  She has a well-established business, has often overcome challenges and is a good mentor and model for other women entrepreneurs.

Victoria has been in business for 9 years.   She went into business for herself after she graduated from the university with a law degree, but couldn’t find a job practicing law.  “Discrimination against people with disabilities in Nigeria is still very prevalent,” she said.  “I didn’t want to be idle.  I am very creative and love the legal profession”.  I brought together my two passions and founded Victoria’s Court. “Prior to founding my company, I never thought of entrepreneurship as a viable career.”  In school professional careers like accounting and medicine were often talked about, but never business, especially for young women.

 

SheEntrepreneur_AkwaIbom1

Today, Victoria’ Court employs a staff of 10 and retains several top clients in the legal profession.  Victoria started her business to help others, women especially, thrive as lawyers.

I could feel Victoria’s passion as she so graciously welcomed me to her business yesterday afternoon.  I stopped by to see if she had any questions about the structure of the training and her audience.   As Victoria shared the success of her business, she also shared the challenges of financing, being a disabled woman entrepreneur and challenges of networking because of her lack of mobility.

SheEntrepreneur_AkwaIbom2

ShEntrepreneurs are selected from a large group of women entrepreneurs that YTF works with as part of the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services program. They kick off the training session by sharing their stories and addressing questions other women entrepreneurs have in trying to build and sustain their individual businesses.  “I can’t wait to share my story,” Victoria said.  I have so much to tell other entrepreneurs, like me”, she said.  “They shouldn’t give up.  Being a woman entrepreneur is not easy, but it is the most fulfilling thing in my life, other than my children.”

***
Ngozi Ejimadu is a Program Coordinator – Gender Empowerment Programs at Youth for Technology Foundation (YTF).  She writes from Imo State, Nigeria, where she works at YTF’s Owerri Digital Village with youth and women to provide access, deliver training and mentor women entrepreneurs. 

 

As One Woman’s Business Prospers, So Does Her Community

Today, August 23rd, marks the one-year anniversary since YTF launched the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services (NWEMVAS) program in Nigeria.  The program is supported by the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women.    Shortly after launching the program last year, I posted an article, “ShEntrepreneur, Who Says She Can’t Change the World?” that provided an overview of the program and its goals.

Since the launch of the NWEMVAS in 2012, I have had the incredible opportunity to interact with and learn from some of the most amazing women entrepreneurs, ShEntrepreneurs as we call them, as they shared their experiences with starting, sustaining and growing their businesses.

ShEntrepreneurs in Imo State participating in the NWEMVAS program

ShEntrepreneurs in Imo State participating in the NWEMVAS program

Recent research[1] demonstrates that mobile value added services (MVAS) can help address some of the key challenges Nigerian women entrepreneurs face in their businesses.   The combination of mobile technology and entrepreneurial training is a systemic solution to bridge the knowledge void women entrepreneurs in the developing world face.

YTF is providing training to 2,000 women entrepreneurs in the Niger Delta.  Classroom and online training is a combination of experiential workshops, case studies and guest speakers.  Women entrepreneurs also participate in YTF-led site or industry tours that build their competence and confidence through interactions with and observations of successful women entrepreneurs in their industries and regions.  The month of July was met with a visit to a yogurt-manufacturing business in Aba, where the participants shared best practices about managing market trends, supply chains and product pricing.

ShEntrepreneurs attending the Imo State consultative sessions

ShEntrepreneurs attending the Imo State consultative sessions

Mrs. Chidiebere O. has a women’s retail clothing and handbag business in Imo State.  My meeting with her started off on somewhat of an emotional angle as she shared the tragedy of losing her husband when her children were still babies.  As a young widow, she knew she had to sustain herself and her children alone and knew that going into business for herself would afford her the flexibility to work and at the same time be available as primary caretaker of her children.   The income generated from her business is the sole source of income for her family and is used to pay her children’s school fees, rent and other family expenses.  She uses her mobile phone primarily to keep in touch with her suppliers and her customers.  Subscribing to Business Women[2] has been of huge benefit to her and the daily Short Message Services (SMS) she receives reminds her to ‘stay the course’.

Chidiebere explained that her knowledge was expanded immensely by attending the classroom training YTF offered and even more by her participation in the industry tour, which has inspired her to establish a handbag manufacturing center.  Her advice to other women wanting to go into business, “You have to start somewhere.  Start small, be disciplined, focus on your customers and all other things will fall in place.”

ShEntrepreneur explaining a business concept during Abia State classroom training

ShEntrepreneur explaining a business concept during Abia State classroom training

I have had the opportunity to interact with Mrs. Joy U., another ShEntrepreneur, over the course of the Nigerian Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services program.  For about three years, her business has been manufacturing local cleaning agents and products.  Joy has an exceptional way of drawing you into her business. As she described her day-to-day successes and challenges, I felt like I, too, was living her business with her.

Joy’s husband is also an entrepreneur and deals with construction material.  As a participant in the NWEMVAS program, Joy subscribes to Business Women.  In her words, “receiving the daily SMS messages simply makes my day.” On certain days, Joy describes there may be network issues that prevent the message’s receipt.  “I look for my message every day; and when I don’t see it on my phone, I miss it.  In addition to the knowledge I receive from the classroom training and industry tours that YTF provides, receiving the content that comes with Business Women serves as a constant reminder of what I should be doing with my business to expand and to be sustainable.  The messages I receive about money management are critical as they are a reminder of how important it is to minimize costs and still maintain the tempo of the business.”

While Joy has a Nokia phone and subscribes to the service, her husband does not subscribe to the service yet.  “I write the messages down every day in a notebook”, she chuckled.  “In fact, many times when my husband comes home from his business, the first thing he asks for is to see the notebook.”

IMG_2835
Mrs. Stella L. became an entrepreneur five years ago primarily to assist her husband in taking care of their seven children.   She is a Coca-Cola distributor.  When I met with her at her business, she was sporting her “ShEntrepreneur” t-shirt.  “I wear this shirt very often”, she said.  “Other business women often stop me to inquire about how they can participate in the program.  I am always very eager to share how the program has empowered me to improve my business, my family and my life.”

Stella explained that by attending the program, her business acumen has improved significantly.  “You know, for many of us women,” she said, “we run our businesses from our handbags. We are not very careful to ensure we manage business expenses and income separately from household finances.”


At YTF, we know that educating and empowering women catalyzes a virtuous cycle that positively affects the health, education and productivity of future generations.  Studies show that narrowing the gender gap in employment could increase global income per capita as much as 20% by 2030[3].

As we reflect on the past year, a lot has been accomplished already.  There is still the potential to reach many more women entrepreneurs partnering with them to build their businesses.

We are grateful to our partners:  the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women; ExxonMobil; MTN Nigeria and Nokia for making this important work possible.  Also, to the ShEntrepreneurs we work with – thank you for allowing YTF to be part of your lives and your vision for your businesses and communities.


Njideka Harry is the Founder of Youth for Technology Foundation (YTF).  Mrs. Harry serves as a consultant to several social enterprises, for-profit businesses with a social mission and international agencies on matters related to technology for development, youth entrepreneurship, gender investing, and corporate social responsibility.  To learn more about her work at YTF, connect with her on LinkedIn.


[1] Mobile Value Added Services – a Business Growth Opportunity for Women Entrepreneurs, Cherie Blair Foundation for Women (2012).

[2] Business Women, a Nokia Life Service, offers essential tips and practical advice on starting and running a successful business to female entrepreneurs in Nigeria on their mobile phones.

[3] Ernst and Young, “Groundbreakers Using the Strength of Women to Rebuild the World Economy” (2009)

“I am a Proud Woman Entrepreneur”

Grace B. is an entrepreneur and owns Flourishing Styles Fair, a confectionary, beadwork and accessories business.  Grace decided to go into business for herself when her efforts to find a job in the private sector didn’t yield the results she was expecting.

For Grace, it was important to use her creative talents to do something she loved.  In addition to catering for small and large vendors, Flourishing Styles Fair designs ladies hats and shoes creatively using beads and lace.  She works with local shoe manufacturers who provide her with the shoes. She then re-designs the shoes using beads and lace and then sells to local consumers.

After attending the YTF’s classroom training as part of the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services program, Grace went on to purchase a Nokia mobile phone and subscribe to the “Business Women” application.

Yes, she is a proud woman entrepreneur.

******

Ifeoma Isiogu is a Program Coordinator – Gender Empowerment Programs at Youth for Technology Foundation (YTF).  She writes from Imo State, Nigeria, where she works at YTF’s Africa headquarters.  Ifeoma is a mentor to many of our youth clients, particularly girls interested in pursuing a career in ICT.  In addition, she delivers training, provides linkages and advice to women entrepreneurs in YTF’s programs. 

For Women, Business is About Passion and Networking

IMG_3407

On Friday, June 28th, I accompanied beneficiaries in the Nigerian Women Entrepreneurs and Mobile Value Added Services (NWEMVAS) training program on an Industry Tour to Fantasy, a successful woman-owned baby clothing boutique and apparel store, in Owerri. 

Industry Tours are tailored to meet the developmental needs of the participants and their sectors.  The visits facilitate the sharing of experiences and challenges amongst women who own businesses in similar industries.  Fantasy is owned by Mrs. Abiele and was open six years ago.  The session began at 12 noon with well over 200 women in attendance. 

I first introduced Mrs. Abiele to the attendees.  I reminded the participants of the various training components that they have an opportunity to benefit from as a part of the NWEMVAS project, the Industry Tour being one of them.  Ifeoma Isiogu, YTF team member, also welcomed participants and provided an introduction to Business Women, the SMS service that is available to women enrolled in NWEMVAS.  Ifeoma conducted a poll to see if there were any women in attendance that had a Nokia handset that is capable of running the service.

Mrs. Abiele addressed the women entrepreneurs and thanked them for coming.  She gave the background of why she started her business from nothing.  She spoke about the importance of establishing a business in an area that you are passionate about.  In her experience, she enjoyed shopping for and sewing clothes for her children, hence her natural inclination to want to open a children’s apparel boutique.  Mrs. Abiele shared about when she first started her business and the two things she did well – going into a business she was passionate about and making good connections with others, both men and women, in business.    

In her words, “If you don’t enjoy what you are doing, you will never grow”. The first question to ask yourself, she said is “what do I enjoy doing”?  Mrs. Abiele encouraged the women to not go into business solely to make money, but to make a difference in the lives of their children and in their communities.  She also advised the women to abstain from co-mingling personal and business funds and not allow others to discourage them.  The Industry Tour ended after the women in attendance had an opportunity to do a walk-through of Fantasy and ask any final questions Mrs. Abiele.  From interviews that were conducted with the women after the Industry Tour, many of them expressed gratitude to the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women for their partnership with YTF to make this important work possible.  “I can’t wait to return to my business now”, another participant, Mrs. Amara, said.  “It is an exciting feeling to know I can implement these strategies to make my business more successful and that I now have such a deep network of other women entrepreneurs”.   

******
Peace Anosike is a Program Coordinator – Gender Empowerment Programs at Youth for Technology Foundation (YTF).  She writes from Imo State, Nigeria, where she works at YTF’s Owerri Digital Village with youth and women to provide access,  deliver training, provides linkages and mentor women entrepreneurs.  Peace is using her passion to increase social impact and empower girls and women to use appropriate technology for education, entrepreneurship, agriculture or health.